Training changes the way the brain pays attention / Un entrainement modifie la façon dont le cerveau porte attention

OUTREACH ARTICLE / ARTICLE DE VULGARISATION
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Training changes the way the brain pays attention

Summary
Behavioral training changes the way attention facilitates information processing in the human brain, a study has found.

Résumé
Un entrainement comportemental modifie la façon dont l'attention facilite le traitement d'information dans le cerveau humain, selon une récente étude.


SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE / ARTICLE SCIENTIFIQUE

Two different mechanisms support selective attention at different phases of training

Itthipuripat, S., Cha, K., Byers, A., & Serences, J. T. (2017). Two different mechanisms support selective attention at different phases of training. PLoS Biology15(6), e2001724.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2001724

Abstract

Selective attention supports the prioritized processing of relevant sensory information to facilitate goal-directed behavior. Studies in human subjects demonstrate that attentional gain of cortical responses can sufficiently account for attention-related improvements in behavior. On the other hand, studies using highly trained nonhuman primates suggest that reductions in neural noise can better explain attentional facilitation of behavior. Given the importance of selective information processing in nearly all domains of cognition, we sought to reconcile these competing accounts by testing the hypothesis that extensive behavioral training alters the neural mechanisms that support selective attention. We tested this hypothesis using electroencephalography (EEG) to measure stimulus-evoked visual responses from human subjects while they performed a selective spatial attention task over the course of ~1 month. Early in training, spatial attention led to an increase in the gain of stimulus-evoked visual responses. Gain was apparent within ~100 ms of stimulus onset, and a quantitative model based on signal detection theory (SDT) successfully linked the magnitude of this gain modulation to attention-related improvements in behavior. However, after extensive training, this early attentional gain was eliminated even though there were still substantial attention-related improvements in behavior. Accordingly, the SDT-based model required noise reduction to account for the link between the stimulus-evoked visual responses and attentional modulations of behavior. These findings suggest that training can lead to fundamental changes in the way attention alters the early cortical responses that support selective information processing. Moreover, these data facilitate the translation of results across different species and across experimental procedures that employ different behavioral training regimes.