Super-sized memory is trainable and long lasting / S'entrainer pour doper sa mémoire

Note: Related scientific article below / L'article scientifique en question est plus bas.

Lien vers l'article de vulgarisation en français / Link to outreach article in French

Radio-Canada:

Résumé
"Certains peuvent penser que la mémoire phénoménale est un don, mais c'est rarement le cas. Des chercheurs ont découvert qu'une méthode mnémotechnique employée par plusieurs champions du monde permet d'améliorer ses aptitudes de façon importante – si on est prêt à s'entraîner."

Summary (translation)
Many think that super-sized memory is a gift, but it's rarely the case. Researchers tested a mnemonic technique used by world champions to increase memory capacities in a significant way - as long as you train and put your mind to it. 
 

Lien vers l'article de vulgarisation en anglais / Link to outreach article in English

Science Daily:

Summary
"The ability to perform astonishing feats of memory, such as remembering lists of several dozen words, can be learned, researchers report. After 40 days using a strategic memory improvement technique, individuals who had typical memory skills at the start and no previous memory training more than doubled their memory capacity, going from recalling an average of 26 words from a list of 72 to remembering 62. Four months later, recall performance remained high."

Résumé (traduction libre)
La capacité de faire preuve d'une mémoire extraordinaire, comme mémoriser une liste de plusieurs douzaines de mots, peut être acquise, selon des chercheurs. Après 40 jours d'entrainement en utilisant une technique de
mémorisation stratégique, des individus ayant
une mémoire typique au préalable et n'ayant
jamais subi d'entrainement semblable, ont plus
que doublé leur capacité de mémorisation,
passant de 26 mots mémorisés, sur une liste en
comptant 72, à 62 mots. Quatre mois plus tard, leur
capacité de mémorisation est demeurée très élevée.


SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE

Mnemonic Training Reshapes Brain Networks to Support Superior Memory

Dresler, M., Shirer, W. R., Konrad, B. N., Müller, N. C. J., Wagner, I. C., Fernández, G., ... & Greicius, M. D. (2017). Mnemonic Training Reshapes Brain Networks to Support Superior Memory. Neuron, 93(5), 1227-1235.

(Link to scientific article / Lien vers l'article scientifique)

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Memory champions show distributed functional brain network connectivity changes
  • Mnemonic strategies for superior memory can be learned by naive subjects
  • Mnemonic training induces similarity with memory champion brain connectivity
  • Brain network dynamics of this effect differ between task and resting state

SUMMARY

Memory skills strongly differ across the general population; however, little is known about the brain characteristics supporting superior memory performance. Here we assess functional brain network organization of 23 of the world’s most successful memory athletes and matched controls with fMRI during both task-free resting state baseline and active memory encoding. We demonstrate that, in a group of naive controls, functional connectivity changes induced by 6 weeks of mnemonic training were correlated with the network organization that distinguishes athletes from controls. During rest, this effect was mainly driven by connections between rather than within the visual, medial temporal lobe and default mode networks, whereas during task it was driven by connectivity within these networks. Similarity with memory athlete connectivity patterns predicted memory improvements up to 4 months after training. In conclusion, mnemonic training drives distributed rather than regional changes, reorganizing the brain’s functional network organization to enable superior memory performance.

Neuroscience and Education - Added Value of Combining Brain Imaging and Behavioral Research (special issue)

Stern, E., Grabner, R. H., & Schumacher, R. (Eds.). (2016). Neuroscience and Education - Added Value of Combining Brain Imaging and Behavioral Research. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 224(4), 237-315.
[link / lien]

 

Editorial

Educational Neuroscience - A Field Between False Hopes and Realistic Expectations (pp. 237-239)
Elsbeth Stern, Roland H. Grabner, Ralph Schumacher
DOI: 10.1027/2151-2604/a000258


Review Articles

Development of Reading Remediation for Dyslexic Individuals - Added Benefits of the Joint Consideration of Neurophysiological and Behavioral Data (pp. 240-246)
Mélanie Bédard, Line Laplante, Julien Mercier
DOI: 10.1027/2151-2604/a000259

A Systematic Review of the Literature Linking Neural Correlates of Feedback Processing to Learning (pp. 247-256)
Jan-Sébastien Dion, Gérardo Restrepo
DOI: 10.1027/2151-2604/a000260


Original Articles

The Effect of a Prospected Reward on Semantic Processing - An N400 EEG Study (pp. 257–265)
Sanne H. G. van der Ven, Sven A. C. van Touw, Anne H. van Hoogmoed, Eva M. Janssen, Paul P. M. Leseman
DOI: 10.1027/2151-2604/a000261

Proportional Reasoning - The Role of Congruity and Salience in Behavioral and Imaging Research (pp. 266–276)
Ruth Stavy, Reuven Babai, Arava Y. Kallai
DOI: 10.1027/2151-2604/a000262

The Learning Brain - Neuronal Recycling and Inhibition (pp. 277–285)
Emmanuel Ahr, Grégoire Borst, Olivier Houdé
DOI: 10.1027/2151-2604/a000263


Spotlights

Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) Reflecting Feedback and Error Processing in the Context of Education (pp. 286–289)
Frieder L. Schillinger
DOI: 10.1027/2151-2604/a000264

Neuroscience-Based Approaches to Teaching Students on the Autism Spectrum (pp. 290–293)
Debbie Cockerham, Evie Malaia
DOI: 10.1027/2151-2604/a000265

Measuring Implicit Cognitive and Emotional Engagement to Better Understand Learners’ Performance in Problem Solving (pp. 294–296)
Patrick Charland, Pierre-Majorique Léger, Julien Mercier, Yannick Skelling, Hugo G. Lapierre
DOI: 10.1027/2151-2604/a000266

Behavioral and Neural Effects of Game-Based Learning on Improving Computational Fluency With Numbers - An Optical Brain Imaging Study (pp. 297–302)
Murat Perit Çakır, Nur Akkuş Çakır, Hasan Ayaz, Frank J. Lee
DOI: 10.1027/2151-2604/a000267

 

Click here to access full issue / Cliquer ici pour accéder au numéro complet

Overlearning hyperstabilizes a skill by rapidly making neurochemical processing inhibitory-dominant

Shibata, K., Sasaki, Y., Bang, J. W., Walsh, E. G., Machizawa, M. G., Tamaki, M., ... & Watanabe, T. (2017). Overlearning hyperstabilizes a skill by rapidly making neurochemical processing inhibitory-dominant. Nature Neuroscience. DOI: 10.1038/nn.4490

Abstract: Overlearning refers to the continued training of a skill after performance improvement has plateaued. Whether overlearning is beneficial is a question in our daily lives that has never been clearly answered. Here we report a new important role: overlearning in humans abruptly changes neurochemical processing, to hyperstabilize and protect trained perceptual learning from subsequent new learning. Usually, learning immediately after training is so unstable that it can be disrupted by subsequent new learning until after passive stabilization occurs hours later. However, overlearning so rapidly and strongly stabilizes the learning state that it not only becomes resilient against, but also disrupts, subsequent new learning. Such hyperstabilization is associated with an abrupt shift from glutamate-dominant excitatory to GABA-dominant inhibitory processing in early visual areas. Hyperstabilization contrasts with passive and slower stabilization, which is associated with a mere reduction of excitatory dominance to baseline levels. Using hyperstabilization may lead to efficient learning paradigms.

Keywords: Learning and memory; Psychology; Sensory processing; Visual system

See also Psypost article about this study: "Study: Practice makes perfect, and ‘overlearning’ locks it in"

Bases théoriques pour l’étude de l’autorégulation enseignante par électroencéphalographie : vers de nouvelles recherches en neuroéducation

Dion, J.-S. (2015). Bases théoriques pour l’étude de l’autorégulation enseignante par électroencéphalographie : vers de nouvelles recherches en neuroéducation. A.N.A.E., 27(134), 63-70.

RÉSUMÉ : Les capacités d’autorégulation des enseignants sont essentielles à leur pratique et il importe de mieux connaître leurs déterminants. L’électroencéphalographie, en palliant des limites méthodologiques en sciences sociales, permet des avancées en ce sens. Cet article propose un éclairage théorique sur l’importance des capacités d’autorégulation des enseignants, sur le monitorage de soi et sur les composantes de potentiels évoqués témoignant de ces capacités cérébrales d’autorégulation. Des pistes de recherche potentielles sont proposées.
Mots clés : Autorégulation – Enseignant – Électroencéphalographie – Neuroéducation.

SUMMARY: Theoretical bases to study self-regulation of learning by electroencephalograph: towards new research in neuroeducation 
Self-regulation skills are essential to the practice of teaching, and research is still needed to know better their determinants. Electroencephalography, by overcoming methodological issues encountered in social sciences regarding this matter, can address this call for research. This article sheds a theoretical light on the importance of teacher self-regulation skills, on self- monitoring as an indicator of neural self-regulation, and on event-related potentials components necessary to the study of neural self-regulation. Potential research avenues are proposed.
Keywords: Self-regulation – Teacher – Electroencephalography – Neuroeducation.

RESUMEN: Teóricas para el estudio de la autorregulación del educador mediante electroencefalografía: hacia nuevos estudios en neuroeducación
Las capacidades de autorregulación de los educadores son esenciales para su trabajo, por lo que importante conocer sus factores determinantes. La electroencefalografía, paliando los límites metodológicos en ciencias sociales, permite obtener avances en este sentido. Este artículo ofrece un enfoque teórico sobre la importancia de las capacidades de autorregulación de los educadores, sobre la propia monitorización y sobre los componentes de los potenciales que atestiguan estas capacidades cerebrales de autorregulación. Se proponen posibles líneas de investigación.
Palabras clave: Autorregulación – Educador – Electroencefalografía – Neuroeducación.

Cliquer ici pour télécharger l'article / Click here to download full text (pdf)

Le programme pédagogique neuroéducatif « À la découverte de mon cerveau » : quels bénéfices pour les élèves d’école élémentaire ?

Lanoë, C., Rossi, S., Froment, L. et Lubin, A. (2015). Le programme pédagogique neuroéducatif « À la découverte de mon cerveau » : quels bénéfices pour les élèves d’école élémentaire ? A.N.A.E., 27(134), 55-62.

RÉSUMÉ : Notre objectif est d’examiner si un programme neuroéducatif peut infléchir les théories implicites de l’intelligence et les compétences scolaires d’élèves âgés de 7 à 11 ans. Soixante-sept élèves bénéficiant ou non de ce programme sont évalués lors de pré et post-tests. Seuls ceux bénéficiant du programme neuroéducatif font évoluer leurs théories implicites de l’intelligence vers des croyances plus dynamiques et progressent en lecture et en calcul. Cette étude montre l’intérêt d’une approche métacognitive permettant aux élèves de comprendre le fonctionnement de leur cerveau pour mieux apprendre.
Mots clés : Neuroéducation – Théories implicites de l’intelligence – Calcul – Lecture – Enfants d’âge scolaire.

SUMMARY: The pedagogical neuroscience course “Discovering my brain”: what benefits for elementary school children?
The aim of this study is to examine whether a pedagogical neuroscience course could influence implicit theories of intelligence and academic skills of school children aged 7 to 11. Sixty seven school children receiving or not the course are evaluated at pre and post-tests. Only those receiving the neuroscience course change their implicit theories of intelligence to an incremental theory and promote better academic performances. This study shows the interest of a metacognitive approach allowing schoolchildren to understand how their brain function to better learn.
Keywords: Neuroeducation – Implicit theories – Arithmetic – Reading – School-age children.

RESUMEN: El programa pedagógico neuroeducativo “Descubrimiento de nuetro cerebro”:
qué beneficios para los alumnos de escuela primaria ?

El objetivo de este estudio es examinar si un programa pedagógico neuroeducativo puede influir en los conceptos de inteligencia y las competencias escolares de los alumnos de 7 a 11 años. 67 alumnos que han beneficiado o no de un programa neuroeducativo han sido evaluados antes y después de las pruebas. Unicamente los beneficiarios del programa hacen evolucionar sur teorias de la inteligencia hacia creencias mas dinámica lo que favorece mejores rendimientos escolares. Este estudio demuestra el interés de un enfoque metacognitivo que permite a los alumnos de entender el funcionamiento de su cerebro para aprender mejor.
Palabras clave: Neuroeducación – Teorias de la inteligencia – Cálculo – Lectura – Niño de edad
escolar.

Cliquer ici pour télécharger l'article / Click here to download full text (pdf)