Chronic effects of exercise implemented during school-break time on neurophysiological indices of inhibitory control in adolescents

Effets chroniques de l'exercice intégré lors des temps de pause à l'école sur les indices neurophysiologiques du contrôle inhibiteur des adolescents

SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE / ARTICLE SCIENTIFIQUE

Ludyga, S., Gerber, M., Herrmann, C., Brand, S., & Pühse, U. (2018). Chronic effects of exercise implemented during school-break time on neurophysiological indices of inhibitory control in adolescents. Trends in Neuroscience and Education10, 1-7.

DOI: 10.1016/j.tine.2017.11.001

Abstract

The present study investigated the effects of an exercise intervention, which was implemented during school-break time, on the P300 component of event-related potentials and inhibitory control. Adolescents aged 12–15 years were allocated to an exercise and control group. The exercise group performed 20 min of aerobic and coordinative exercise per school day over a period of 8 weeks. Before and after the intervention, stimulus-locked event-related potentials were recorded during a Stroop task using electroencephalography. Cluster-based permutation testing revealed a greater increase of the P300 amplitude in the exercise compared to the control group, most pronounced for the parieto-occipital region. Additionally, increases in P300 amplitude were associated with decreases in incompatible reaction time on the Stroop task. An exercise program implemented during school-break time enhances adolescents' inhibitory control. This benefit seems to be due to an improved allocation of attentional resources towards the cognitive task.

Keywords
P300; Event-related potentials; Stroop task; Coordinative exercise; Executive control; Physical activity; Inhibition

An Updated Survey on Statistical Thresholding and Sample Size of fMRI Studies

Seuils statistiques et tailles des échantillons des études en IRMf: une nouvelle recension de la littérature

SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE / ARTICLE SCIENTIFIQUE

Yeung, A. W. K. (2018). An Updated Survey on Statistical Thresholding and Sample Size of fMRI Studies. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience12, 16.

DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2018.00016

Abstract

Background: Since the early 2010s, the neuroimaging field has paid more attention to the issue of false positives. Several journals have issued guidelines regarding statistical thresholds. Three papers have reported the statistical analysis of the thresholds used in fMRI literature, but they were published at least 3 years ago and surveyed papers published during 2007–2012. This study revisited this topic to evaluate the changes in this field.

Methods: The PubMed database was searched to identify the task-based (not resting-state) fMRI papers published in 2017 and record their sample sizes, inferential methods (e.g., voxelwise or clusterwise), theoretical methods (e.g., parametric or non-parametric), significance level, cluster-defining primary threshold (CDT), volume of analysis (whole brain or region of interest) and software used.

Results: The majority (95.6%) of the 388 analyzed articles reported statistics corrected for multiple comparisons. A large proportion (69.6%) of the 388 articles reported main results by clusterwise inference. The analyzed articles mostly used software Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), Analysis of Functional NeuroImages (AFNI), or FMRIB Software Library (FSL) to conduct statistical analysis. There were 70.9%, 37.6%, and 23.1% of SPM, AFNI, and FSL studies, respectively, that used a CDT of p ≤ 0.001. The statistical sample size across the articles ranged between 7 and 1,299 with a median of 33. Sample size did not significantly correlate with the level of statistical threshold.

Conclusion: There were still around 53% (142/270) studies using clusterwise inference that chose a more liberal CDT than p = 0.001 (n = 121) or did not report their CDT (n = 21), down from around 61% reported by Woo et al. (2014). For FSL studies, it seemed that the CDT practice had no improvement since the survey by Woo et al. (2014). A few studies chose unconventional CDT such as p = 0.0125 or 0.004. Such practice might create an impression that the threshold alterations were attempted to show “desired” clusters. The median sample size used in the analyzed articles was similar to those reported in previous surveys. In conclusion, there seemed to be no change in the statistical practice compared to the early 2010s.

Longitudinal brain development of numerical skills in typically developing children and children with developmental dyscalculia

Développement cérébral longitudinal des compétences numériques chez les enfants au développement "typique" et chez les enfants atteints de dyscalculie développementale

SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE / ARTICLE SCIENTIFIQUE

McCaskey, U., von Aster, M., Maurer, U., Martin, E., O'Gorman Tuura, R., & Kucian, K. (2017). Longitudinal brain development of numerical skills in typically developing children and children with developmental dyscalculia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience11, 629.

DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00629

Abstract

Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning disability affecting the acquisition of numerical-arithmetical skills. Studies report persistent deficits in number processing and aberrant functional activation of the fronto-parietal numerical network in DD. However, the neural development of numerical abilities has been scarcely investigated. The present paper provides a first attempt to investigate behavioral and neural trajectories of numerical abilities longitudinally in typically developing (TD) and DD children. During a study period of 4 years, 28 children (8–11 years) were evaluated twice by means of neuropsychological tests and a numerical order fMRI paradigm. Over time, TD children improved in numerical abilities and showed a consistent and well-developed fronto-parietal network. In contrast, DD children revealed persistent deficits in number processing and arithmetic. Brain imaging results of the DD group showed an age-related activation increase in parietal regions (intraparietal sulcus), pointing to a delayed development of number processing areas. Besides, an activation increase in frontal areas was observed over time, indicating the use of compensatory mechanisms. In conclusion, results suggest a continuation in neural development of number representation in DD, whereas the neural network for simple ordinal number estimation seems to be stable or show only subtle changes in TD children over time.

Keywords
Brain development, Child, Developmental dyscalculia, Longitudinal, Number processing

Structural plasticity of the social brain: Differential change after socio-affective and cognitive mental training

Plasticité structurelle du "cerveau social": changements suite à un entrainement socio-affectif et cognitif

SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE / ARTICLE SCIENTIFIQUE

Valk, S. L., Bernhardt, B. C., Trautwein, F. M., Böckler, A., Kanske, P., Guizard, N., ... & Singer, T. (2017). Structural plasticity of the social brain: Differential change after socio-affective and cognitive mental training. Science Advances3(10), e1700489.

DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1700489

Abstract

Although neuroscientific research has revealed experience-dependent brain changes across the life span in sensory, motor, and cognitive domains, plasticity relating to social capacities remains largely unknown. To investigate whether the targeted mental training of different cognitive and social skills can induce specific changes in brain morphology, we collected longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data throughout a 9-month mental training intervention from a large sample of adults between 20 and 55 years of age. By means of various daily mental exercises and weekly instructed group sessions, training protocols specifically addressed three functional domains: (i) mindfulness-based attention and interoception, (ii) socio-affective skills (compassion, dealing with difficult emotions, and prosocial motivation), and (iii) socio-cognitive skills (cognitive perspective-taking on self and others and metacognition). MRI-based cortical thickness analyses, contrasting the different training modules against each other, indicated spatially diverging changes in cortical morphology. Training of present-moment focused attention mostly led to increases in cortical thickness in prefrontal regions, socio-affective training induced plasticity in frontoinsular regions, and socio-cognitive training included change in inferior frontal and lateral temporal cortices. Module-specific structural brain changes correlated with training-induced behavioral improvements in the same individuals in domain-specific measures of attention, compassion, and cognitive perspective-taking, respectively, and overlapped with task-relevant functional networks. Our longitudinal findings indicate structural plasticity in well-known socio-affective and socio-cognitive brain networks in healthy adults based on targeted short daily mental practices. These findings could promote the development of evidence-based mental training interventions in clinical, educational, and corporate settings aimed at cultivating social intelligence, prosocial motivation, and cooperation.

Video gamers have an advantage in learning / Jouer à des jeux vidéos favoriserait l'apprentissage

OUTREACH ARTICLE / ARTICLE DE VULGARISATION
(see related scientific article below / voir l'article scientifique source plus bas)

Science Daily
Click here to access outreach article / Cliquer ici pour accéder à cet article de vulgarisation

Summary
Neuropsychologists let video gamers compete against non-gamers in a learning competition. During the test, the video gamers performed significantly better and showed an increased brain activity in the brain areas that are relevant for learning.

Résumé
Dans une tâche compétitive d'apprentissage, des neuropsychologues ont confronté des adeptes de jeux vidéos à des "non joueurs". Pendant cette tâche, les adeptes de jeux vidéos ont significativement mieux performé et ont fait preuve d'une activité cérébrale plus grande dans les régions associées à l'apprentissage. 


SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE / ARTICLE SCIENTIFIQUE

Games people play: How video games improve probabilistic learning

Schenk, S., Lech, R. K., & Suchan, B. (2017). Games people play: How video games improve probabilistic learning. Behavioural Brain Research335, 208-214.

DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2017.08.027

Abstract

Recent research suggests that video game playing is associated with many cognitive benefits. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms mediating such effects, especially with regard to probabilistic categorization learning, which is a widely unexplored area in gaming research. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the neural correlates of probabilistic classification learning in video gamers in comparison to non-gamers. Subjects were scanned in a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner while performing a modified version of the weather prediction task. Behavioral data yielded evidence for better categorization performance of video gamers, particularly under conditions characterized by stronger uncertainty. Furthermore, a post-experimental questionnaire showed that video gamers had acquired higher declarative knowledge about the card combinations and the related weather outcomes. Functional imaging data revealed for video gamers stronger activation clusters in the hippocampus, the precuneus, the cingulate gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus as well as in occipital visual areas and in areas related to attentional processes. All these areas are connected with each other and represent critical nodes for semantic memory, visual imagery and cognitive control. Apart from this, and in line with previous studies, both groups showed activation in brain areas that are related to attention and executive functions as well as in the basal ganglia and in memory-associated regions of the medial temporal lobe. These results suggest that playing video games might enhance the usage of declarative knowledge as well as hippocampal involvement and enhances overall learning performance during probabilistic learning. In contrast to non-gamers, video gamers showed better categorization performance, independently of the uncertainty of the condition.

Keywords
Probabilistic categorization learning; Video games; Hippocampus; Enrichment of environment